Renewable Energy


        “Powering the Future: Exploring Renewable Energy Technologies”

Renewable energy refers to energy that is derived from naturally occurring sources that are continuously replenished. Unlike fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, and natural gas), which are finite and contribute to environmental problems like air pollution and climate change, renewable energy sources are sustainable and have minimal or no negative environmental impacts.

Here are some common types of renewable energy sources:

Solar Energy: Solar power is generated by harnessing sunlight using photovoltaic cells or solar panels. These panels convert sunlight directly into electricity or heat water for residential, commercial, and industrial use.

Wind Energy: Wind turbines capture the kinetic energy of moving air and convert it into electricity. Wind farms consist of multiple turbines and can be located onshore or offshore to take advantage of wind patterns.

Hydroelectric Energy: This type of energy is generated by the movement of water, usually in rivers or dams. Falling or flowing water turns turbines, which then generate electricity. Large-scale hydroelectric plants are capable of producing significant amounts of power.

Geothermal Energy: Geothermal power is produced by tapping into the Earth’s internal heat. This is typically done by using hot water or steam from within the Earth to turn turbines and generate electricity.

Biomass Energy: Biomass energy is derived from organic materials such as wood, agricultural residues, and waste. These materials can be burned to produce heat directly or converted into biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel for transportation and energy generation.

Ocean Energy: Ocean energy encompasses various technologies that harness the energy of tides, waves, and ocean temperature differences. Examples include tidal power, wave energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC).

Renewable energy sources offer several advantages:Environmental Benefits: They produce little to no greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutants, or waste, making them more sustainable and reducing the negative impacts of energy production on the environment.
Energy Security: Unlike fossil fuels, which are subject to price fluctuations and geopolitical tensions, renewable energy sources are abundant and locally available.
Job Creation: The renewable energy sector has the potential to create numerous jobs in manufacturing, installation, maintenance, and research.
Diversification of Energy Mix: Incorporating a variety of renewable sources can enhance energy security and reduce dependence on a single energy source.

However, there are also challenges associated with renewable energy:Intermittency: Some renewable sources, like solar and wind, are intermittent and depend on weather conditions. This requires the development of energy storage solutions and smart grids to ensure a stable power supply.
Infrastructure and Costs: Building the necessary infrastructure for renewable energy generation can be expensive. While costs have been decreasing over time, initial investment remains a barrier in some cases.
Land and Resource Use: Large-scale renewable energy projects, such as solar farms and wind turbines, may require significant land or resources, potentially impacting local ecosystems and communities.

Despite these challenges, the transition to renewable energy is considered crucial for addressing climate change, reducing pollution, and ensuring a sustainable energy future. Many countries around the world are investing in and promoting the development of renewable energy technologies to achieve these goals.




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Mobile Computing


                        “Exploring the Evolution of Mobile Computing”

Mobile computing refers to the use of portable computing devices, such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, and wearable devices, to access and process information while on the move or away from a fixed location. This technology allows users to stay connected, access data, and perform tasks without being tethered to a specific physical location.

Key characteristics and aspects of mobile computing include:

Portability: Mobile devices are compact and lightweight, making them easy to carry and use while traveling or on the go.

Wireless Connectivity: Mobile devices connect to the internet and other networks through wireless technologies like Wi-Fi, cellular networks (3G, 4G, 5G), Bluetooth, and NFC (Near Field Communication).

Location Awareness: Many mobile devices have built-in GPS (Global Positioning System) capabilities, enabling them to determine their geographic location. This feature is used for various applications like navigation, location-based services, and geotagging.

Multimedia Capabilities: Mobile devices often come equipped with cameras, microphones, speakers, and touchscreens, allowing users to engage in multimedia activities such as taking photos and videos, making video calls, and playing games.

Software Applications: Mobile devices run a variety of applications, including productivity tools, social media apps, entertainment apps, games, and more. These apps can be downloaded from app stores or installed through other sources.

Cloud Integration: Mobile computing often involves cloud services, where data is stored and processed remotely on servers, allowing users to access and sync their information across multiple devices.

Battery Life: Mobile devices are designed to have sufficient battery life to support their portable nature, allowing users to use them for extended periods without frequent recharging.

Security and Privacy: Due to their mobility and connectivity, mobile devices require robust security measures to protect data and user privacy. This includes encryption, biometric authentication, and remote device management.

Wearable Technology: Wearable devices, such as smartwatches and fitness trackers, are a subset of mobile computing that users can wear on their bodies. These devices often provide health and fitness monitoring, notifications, and other features.

Mobile Commerce (M-Commerce): Mobile computing has enabled mobile commerce, allowing users to conduct financial transactions, shop online, and make payments using their mobile devices.

Mobile computing has transformed the way people work, communicate, and access information, enabling a more flexible and connected lifestyle. It has also paved the way for the development of new applications, services, and business models that cater to the needs of mobile users.




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Web Page Rendering: The primary function of a web browser is to render (display) web pages. It interprets and presents HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) documents, CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and other web technologies to visually represent websites to users.

URL Navigation: Users can enter web addresses (URLs) into the browser’s address bar to navigate to specific websites. The browser then fetches the requested web page from a remote server and displays it in the browser window.

Tabbed Browsing: Most modern browsers support tabbed browsing, which allows users to open multiple web pages within a single browser window. Tabs make it easier to switch between different websites and keep multiple pages open simultaneously.

Bookmarks: Browsers enable users to save their favorite websites as bookmarks for quick access. Bookmarks help users organize and manage the websites they frequently visit.

History: Browsers maintain a history of visited websites, allowing users to revisit previously accessed pages. This feature also aids in retracing steps and finding recently viewed content.

Search: Web browsers often include a search bar that integrates with popular search engines. Users can enter search queries directly into the browser to find information on the web.

Extensions and Add-ons: Many browsers support extensions or add-ons, which are small software modules that enhance browser functionality. Extensions can provide features such as ad-blocking, language translation, password management, and more.

Security and Privacy: Browsers include security features to protect users from malicious websites and threats. They also offer privacy options, such as private browsing mode, which prevents the browser from saving browsing history, cookies, and other data.

Download Management: Browsers allow users to download files from the internet. Download management features include options to pause, resume, and organize downloaded files.

Cross-Platform Compatibility: Browsers are available on various platforms, including desktop computers, laptops, smartphones, and tablets. Many browsers offer synchronization features that allow users to access their bookmarks, history, and settings across multiple devices.

Popular web browsers as of my knowledge cutoff in September 2021 include Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Safari (for Apple devices), and Opera. However, the browser landscape can change, so there might be new developments or changes since then.


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                               “Choked Skies: The Battle Against Air Pollution”

Pollution refers to the introduction of harmful substances or contaminants into the environment, which can cause adverse effects on the natural ecosystem, human health, and well-being. There are various types of pollution, each with its own set of consequences:

Air Pollution: The release of pollutants into the atmosphere from industrial processes, transportation, and burning fossil fuels. It leads to respiratory problems, cardiovascular diseases, and contributes to climate change.

Water Pollution: The contamination of water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans, by chemicals, sewage, industrial waste, and agricultural runoff. It harms aquatic life, affects drinking water quality, and can cause waterborne diseases.

Plastic Pollution: The accumulation of plastic waste in the environment, particularly in the oceans, negatively impacting marine life and ecosystems.

Soil Pollution: The introduction of harmful chemicals and substances into the soil through industrial activities, agricultural practices, and improper waste disposal. It can reduce soil fertility, contaminate crops, and affect food safety.

Noise Pollution: The excessive or disturbing noise that interferes with daily activities and can lead to stress, hearing problems, and sleep disturbances.

Light Pollution: The excessive and misdirected artificial light that disrupts natural habitats, interferes with ecosystems, and affects wildlife behavior.

Thermal Pollution: The release of heated water from industrial processes into natural water bodies, disrupting aquatic ecosystems and affecting aquatic organisms.

Radioactive Pollution: The presence of radioactive substances in the environment due to nuclear accidents, nuclear waste disposal, or other sources, which can cause severe health issues and environmental damage.


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Artic Region


                      “The Arctic Tundra: A Delicate Ecosystem in Peril”

The “Arctic region” refers to the northernmost part of the Earth, surrounding the North Pole. It is characterized by its cold climate, unique ecosystems, and vast expanses of ice and snow. The Arctic Circle, an imaginary line at approximately 66.5 degrees north latitude, marks the southern boundary of this region. The Arctic is a distinct and important area with its own environmental and geopolitical significance.

Key features of the Arctic region include:

Climate: The Arctic climate is characterized by extremely cold temperatures, especially during the long winter months when polar nights prevail. Summers are short and relatively cool. The Arctic experiences significant seasonal variations in daylight due to the tilt of the Earth’s axis.

Sea Ice: The Arctic Ocean is covered by a layer of sea ice that forms during the winter and partially melts during the summer months. The extent of sea ice varies seasonally, with minimum ice cover typically occurring in September and maximum ice cover around March.

Arctic Tundra: The dominant terrestrial ecosystem in the Arctic is the tundra, which consists of treeless plains covered in mosses, lichens, and low-lying shrubs. The short growing season and permafrost (permanently frozen ground) limit the types of plants that can survive in this environment.

Wildlife: The Arctic region is home to a variety of unique animal species, including polar bears, Arctic foxes, caribou (reindeer), muskoxen, walruses, and various bird species. Marine mammals such as seals, whales, and narwhals are also common in Arctic waters.

Indigenous Peoples: Several indigenous communities have lived in the Arctic for thousands of years, including the Inuit, Yupik, and Saami. These communities have adapted their way of life to the harsh Arctic conditions and have a deep understanding of the region’s ecosystems.

Climate Change: The Arctic is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, with temperatures rising at a faster rate than in other parts of the world. The reduction in sea ice cover and thawing permafrost have significant implications for the region’s ecosystems and contribute to global sea level rise.

Geopolitical Importance: The Arctic’s strategic location and abundance of natural resources, such as oil, gas, and minerals, have led to increased attention from various countries and industries. The Arctic region is subject to territorial disputes and geopolitical tensions as nations seek to assert their interests in the area.

The Arctic region plays a crucial role in the Earth’s climate system and has global implications for weather patterns, ocean currents, and sea level rise. As such, it is a focus of scientific research, conservation efforts, and international cooperation to address the challenges posed by climate change and environmental issues.



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How to find good sources for a research paper or a term paper and determine its reliability


Finding a source of literature for writing any research paper, whether it is an abstract or a monograph, is not a problem. You can easily find the original works of Cicero and Nietzsche thanks to the same Internet. However, it is just as easy to find what Cicero and Nietzsche allegedly once said. Can you feel the difference?

While preparing college research papers, you will need to pay as much attention to finding sources of information as you do to paper writing itself. Often students do not know how to determine which sources of information are trustworthy and which are worth skipping. Therefore, students need help writing my paper service to write a good research paper. With the experienced writers’ help, you’ll get through your college writing assignment faster. Feel free to contact experts when you need help with your academic papers.

In this article, we will tell you what sources you can use in your term and dissertation, what kinds of them exist, and how to find a reliable list of literature.

Source requirements for a term paper

Finding literature for a term paper is not the easiest task. After all, students always have a question about how to determine good sources on the Internet or in the library. Agree, it is unseemly to use in a scientific work what is fiction or dubious conclusions of a person who has absolutely no weight in scientific circles. Therefore, it is always important to check the citation authenticity and the author’s professional reputation also.

How can you check the authenticity of a quotation? There are two ways. The first is to go to the library and find the exact source. The second is to type the quote into Google in quotation marks. For example: “cogito ergo sum”. The search engine will give you results that are for this exact phrase.

It is worth remembering that literary sources have certain requirements:

  1. Use as many sources as possible. Universities often set minimum figures for different types of work. Choose modern monographs, popular scientific sources, and the latest editions of normative acts: the literature should not be older than five years.
  2. Make a selection only of the literature that corresponds to the topic of the term or thesis.
  3. Take into account different types of sources for the term paper: thematic monographs, encyclopedias, scientific articles, journals, and electronic sites. Textbooks and textbooks can be used, but not as the main sources.
  4. It is advisable to include several foreign literary sources on the topic.
  5. Always check that literary sources are reliable and scholarly.
  6. What literature can be used if you are studying historical aspects? You can refer to sources older than five years if the term paper topic is justified.

So, how do you learn to discard information garbage, false facts, and speculations and be able to find reliable sources of literature for your thesis, research article, and so on? Read on and you will learn how to search for such literature.

Why it is important to find the right source on the topic

For a reference list for a term paper, it is important to look for sources that you can trust. Now you can search for literature for a term paper or diploma online. You can find almost any source on the Internet. Especially for students are relevant sites for finding literature for coursework. Due to a lack of money and time, they cannot buy the book they need for their studies. At the same time, students often perform obligatory scientific work: writing reports, and essays, solving tests, and laboratory, independent work. And here it is important to be able to successfully search for a list of references, which will allow you to do the teacher’s assignment on the excellent.

Where to find a reference list

So, where can you find a list of reliable literature:

  • go to the university library;
  • ask your thesis advisor to pick up a list of literature on the topic;
  • study monographs on the topic, and especially lists of references;
  • to search for research papers and articles in verified Internet resources.

Methods for assessing source credibility: how to find the sourc

How to find the right literature? To do this, you will have to learn how to determine the credibility of information, which you can easily use not only in everyday life but also in scientific papers.

There are two main methods for this:

  1. The method of evaluating sources for scholarly papers.
  2. The method for evaluating sources for everyday life.

Let’s take a closer look at each of them.

Method for evaluating sources for research papers

Before you find a reference list online, follow this algorithm of actions:

  1. Find out the academic standards for your paper. Some types of papers have more serious requirements, while others have only light guidelines attached to them, such as newspaper or magazine articles.
  • Find out about the author’s reputation. In any field of knowledge, there are names whose fame is unshakable. The main thing here is not the lack of reputation, but the absence of a bad reputation for the author. Today it is not difficult to find scandals on the Internet in which certain scientists have been involved.
  • Mention those sources that will be essential to the scholarly work. It is perfectly safe to use lists of sources found in peer-reviewed or scholarly articles.
  • Be wary of online information. Such sources are in the public domain, regardless of their professionalism or skill level. Where, then, do you get your sources from the Internet?
  • Try to distinguish between scientific and non-scientific publications. Scientific publications include a presentation of new ideas, criticism of old ideas and publication of fresh data, discussion of theories, references to sources of information, and research done. Non-scientific publications may deal with a scientific topic (e.g., political science or sociology), but they are mostly created for entertainment rather than for information. They are also easily distinguished by the sources in which they are published. When working on a serious academic project, it is better to use scientific papers and articles.
  • Evaluate the timeliness of the data. Science does not stand still, theories and concepts are constantly evolving. What seemed like revolutionary approach years or months ago may be outdated and sometimes incorrect today. So always pay attention to the date of studies and publications.
  • Check with alternative opinions. If in doubt, you can always contact the department where you can find the literature and how authoritative the source of interest is. They are usually quite well-informed about the credibility of a particular author. However, you should always ask for an alternative opinion before you finish your work.

A method for everyday life: how to find sources

If you want to understand where to find a list of references used for everyday needs, you need a clear algorithm for what to do.

So, if you have a resource in front of you that needs to be evaluated for reliability, do the following:

  1. Determine the professionalism of the source. Try to estimate the amount of time and money spent on the article. In real life quite often there is a rule: the more time and money spent on the publication of the material, the higher the probability of its high credibility. Bad design, poor layout, too many ads, and spam, pop-ups – all this is a clear indicator that the resource is designed not to inform, but to make money. And if the main goal – is to make money, then they will publish what the user wants to see, but not the actual information. A good site with reliable information looks professional and serious. In this case, it is not necessarily that the creators had to pay a fortune for it.
  • Find out the name of the author of the publication. Information from any source can be trusted only if it is signed by the name of the author, who has a certain scientific status in a particular field. Articles without authorship are better to discard immediately.
  • But if you are going to emphasize the author’s name, it is worth highlighting the following points:
  • where the author works,
  • his goals and values,
  • what reputable institution he is affiliated with, and what value his work brings,
  • what kind of education he has,
  • whether he has other publications,
  • what experience the author has,
  • whether the author’s work and ideas are cited in other authoritative sources.
  • Try to determine the publication’s target audience. The broader the audience the publication is dedicated to, the more likely it is to contain contradictory and even unreliable information. It is just as harmful to us to specialized sources. People often misunderstand the essence of a publication and misinterpret information. If you do so, you risk damaging your reputation as much as you would if you used false information.

It is only at first glance that the process of determining whether a source is credible seems complicated and time-consuming. In fact, with a little practice, you’ll begin to notice the direct and indirect signs and know exactly how to find the right reference list. In the end, your work will be perfect, we believe it!

However, you can turn to the best college essay writing service if you have a desire but no time to search and write a term paper or dissertation. Experts know exactly where and how to look for reliable sources and prepare your work in time.


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How Non-Humans Are Authoring Scientific Papers


 Though proving to be a daydream tool for many industries, ChatGPT is quickly becoming a nightmare for academia.

As of January 2023, four separate research papers have cited the AI chatbot as a co-author in a research project — forcing scientific journals to scramble to update their policies and regulations addressing possible ethical problems.

Ethical Issues

The process of adding an author who made little to no contribution to a scientific paper is called honorary authorship, and it’s caused some serious ethical issues in the past. One of the earliest of these issues occurred in the mid-1970s and involved, surprisingly, a cat.

In 1975, a University of Michigan physics professor by the name of Jack Hetherington had just finished writing a rather influential paper on changing particle behaviors at different temperatures. The paper was due to be published in Physics Review Letters, and the deadline was looming.

Unfortunately, a colleague pointed out a problem: Hetherington had referred to himself as “we” in the paper, yet he was the only author, which could cause the paper to be rejected.

So, instead of retyping the whole paper, Hetherington simply added the name of his cat, a Siamese called Chester, as a co-author.

n his book More Random Walks in Science, Hetherington explains that he created Chester’s pseudonym, F.D.C. Willard, by adding Felix domesticus (the Latin name for domestic cats) in front of Chester’s first initial. Then Hetherington slapped Chester’s father’s name, Willard, on as a surname.

Cat’s Out of the Bag

“I did not ignore completely the publicity value,” Hetherington admits in his book. “If it eventually proved to be correct, people would remember the paper more if the anomalous authorship were known.”

Hetherington’s theory turned out to be correct. Not only did the paper become widely cited, but eventually the world found out about Chester’s authorship — arousing even more publicity.

While the University of Michigan leveraged this attention, even offering Chester a faculty position as a Distinguished Visiting Fellow, others were not as thrilled. The editors at Physics Review Letters, for one, felt misled and silly for publishing a paper co-authored by a cat.

The ethical controversy was mostly overlooked at the time, however, and Chester went on to co-author two more papers and one solo paper before passing away in 1982 at the age of 14. His Google Scholar profile shows around 104 citations of his papers.

To honor Chester’s legacy, on April 1, 2014, the American Physical Society announced an open-access initiative for all cat-authored papers.

Pet Authorship

Chester’s story is just one of a handful in which scientists have added a pet or animal test subject as a co-author.

Nobel Prize winner Andre Geim co-authored a paper (not his Nobel-winning publication) with an author suspiciously named “H.A.M.S. ter Trisha.” While the paper did not disclose Trisha’s contributions, Geim still was able to add his pet hamster as an honorary author.

Others have not been as lucky. Immunologist Polly Matzinger published a paper with her dog, Galadriel Mirkwood, as an honorary author in the Journal of Experimental Immunology in 1978.

Upon finding out the truth, the journal’s editor banned Matzinger from publication until the editor died. She also became the subject of an internal investigation at the University of California San Diego.

Luckily, Matzinger was able to show that her dog had indeed contributed to her research and that no fraud had been committed.

Though this example supposes that animal test subjects have more of a right to be listed as co-author on a paper than a mere pet, Hansrudi Lenz of the University of Würzburg argues this practice is unethical.

“Logically, a pet or deceased relative cannot make a genuine and identifiable contribution to a scientific publication,” he says.

Honorary Authorship

The whimsy of these stories can easily obstruct the ethical dilemmas they cause, yet the process of honorary authorship — even beyond pets — continues, thanks to the pressure scientists feel to continually publish.

In a 2020 study, Mariola Paruzel-Czachura of the University of Silesia in Poland and her team found that the most common form of scientific misconduct reported is honorary authorship, with 52 percent of the study’s participants observing this process.

It could be some kind of bribe,” Parazel-Czachura says, offering a possible reason for such a high percentage. “It could help a researcher get a better job, or funding for a conference. It could even be a partnership, where both researchers agree to add each other as honorary authors.”

This, however, causes problems with authorship inflation, in which an author’s number of citations is higher than it should be because they seem to have “published” more papers.

AI Writers

Now, with the information age and all it brings (looking at you, ChatGPT), it’s even easier for researchers to practice honorary co-authorship. Because of this, most scholarly journals are finding it more difficult to regulate AI co-authors.

“We’re trying to take the most cautious approach that we can,” says H. Holden Thorp, the editor-in-chief of Science. “We’ll start with something more restrictive and then loosen it up over time.”

In a January 2023 Science editorial, Thorp cites a couple of these policy changes — including a complete ban on the use of any part of the text, images, figures or graphics made by ChatGPT or other AI tools.

Thorp, like others, hopes that the National Academy of Sciences will address this issue soon, in order to set the precedent of dealing with an AI honorary author.

The path moving forward may lie, in fact, in a paper published by researchers from the University of Cologne in Germany, way back in 2017. They write: “The appropriate way of considering [others’] factual role in scientific publications should generally be in the Acknowledgements section.”

The authors then went on to thank their goldfish, Einstein and Heisenberg, in this very section.


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AutHer Awards 2023 winners announced at a gala event in New Delhi



It was an exciting evening at Taj Palace, New Delhi this Sunday as the audience witnessed a heart-warming celebration of Indian women writers on the occasion of AutHer Awards 2023 winner announcements. The AutHer Awards, a joint venture between The Times of India and JK Paper, celebrates women authors who have added value and creativity to the literary space. From authors, publishers, academicians, and book lovers to bureaucrats, politicians, and artistes– the fourth edition of AutHer Awards was attended by some of the biggest names in the literary space.
Veteran actress Shabana Azmi was the Chief Guest for AutHer Awards 2023.

The winners are…


The AutHer Awards 2023 winners were announced for four major categories – Fiction, Non-Fiction, Children’s Literature, and Debut. A Lifetime Achievement award and a Prize in the Popular Choice category were also given. A new award category was also introduced this year for Best Manuscript.
The AutHer Awards 2023- Best Author Fiction was given to Janice Pariat for her novel ‘Everything the Light Touches’, published by HarperCollins.

The AutHer Awards 2023- Best Author Non-Fiction went to Barkha Dutt for her book ‘To Hell and Back: Humans of COVID’, published by Juggernaut Books.

The AutHer Awards 2023- Best Author Debut Award was won by Vauhini Vara for her novel ‘The Immortal King Rao’, published by HarperCollins.

The AutHer Awards 2023 for Best Children’s Author was given to two women writers this year! While Bijal Vachharajani won the award for ‘Savi and the Memory Keeper’ (published by Hachette India), author Vaishali Shroff also won the award for her children’s book ‘Batata, Pao and All Things Portuguese’ (published by The People Place Project). It is noted that Bijal Vachharajani had also won AutHer Awards in 2019 for her book ‘A Cloud Called Bhura’.

The Popular Choice Award was won by Vaishnavi Roy for her book ‘Unwind’, published by The Write Order, for garnering the maximum number of votes online.

Veteran Indian novelist and feminist author, Shashi Deshpande was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award this year for her timeless contribution to Indian writing in English.

The AutHer Awards 2023 for Best Manuscript was given to Aditi Sowmyanarayan from Bangalore. The 17-year-old writer, who is non-verbal and on the autism spectrum, stood out with her exceptional writing talent for the jury. Aditi’s award was received by her father Srinivasan Sowmyanarayan on her behalf. Expressing her gratitude on winning the award, Aditi said in a recorded message, “To say that I am exulted at this moment would be an understatement! Thank you JK Paper and The Times of India for conferring the Best Manuscript award to my labour of love, ‘With You, Right Through’. It is a huge shot in the arm for me to write more, write better and bring to the fore the thinking mind behind the facade of non-speaking autism. Last, but not the least, I dedicate the award to my mother. Amma- you are, therefore I am. Thank you.”

Ankita Pal, 16, stood a close second in the Best Manuscript category. She too won an AutHer Award in this category for her manuscript ‘Throne of Dragonix’.

The selection process
The Longlist, Shortlist, and Winners for AutHer Awards 2023 were chosen after multiple layers of screening, followed by detailed discussions among a panel of eminent jury. This year The Times of India received over 2000 entries, submitted by both publishers and authors, for the coveted women writers awards which is the first of its kind in India. The jury considered books by women published in India between December 2021 and November 2022.

Check the complete Longlist for AutHer Awards 2023 HERE
Check the complete Shortist for AutHer Awards 2023 HERE

The Jury
The Chairs for the AutHer Awards 2023 jury were: actress-author Sonali Bendre (Fiction), author-historian Dr Vikram Sampath (Non-fiction), one of the leading members of the Apeejay Surrendra Group– Priti Paul (Debut), and award-winning children’s author Ranjit Lal (Children’s books).

Commenting on Auther Awards 2023, Sonali Bendre- Chair for Fiction category said, “The Auther Awards is a wonderful initiative to recognize and encourage women authors. It’s an honour to be Jury Chair for the fiction books – it’s my favourite genre and it was an absolute pleasure to read the selection this year. There were so many new voices, new styles of writing, and each had its own distinct flavour. Some of them really resonated strongly with me, with beautifully written prose, and I wish all the authors all the very best.”

While, Chair for Non-fiction– Dr Vikram Sampath said, “It was truly an honour to head the Non-fiction jury of the unique and one of its kind AutHer Awards that celebrates the best of women writers in contemporary India. Jury members Ramesh Sharma, Prabha Chandran, and I loved reading the wide and eclectic range of books in this category that ranged from biographies, history, memoirs to contemporary societal issues and politics. It was a tough task for us to zero in on the longlist and subsequent filters down to the final winner.”

Talking about the varied variety of children’s books the jury read this year, Ranjit Lal– Chair for Children’s category, said, “An eclectic collection of stories that should encourage children to bury their noses in the books! Mythology seems to be a favourite subject with children’s authors these days. The three top rankers ran a very close race indeed!”

Priti Paul, Chair- Debut category, said, “I am deeply honoured to chair the Jury for the Debut category in Season 4 of the AutHer Awards. As a book retailer, I strongly believe that the celebration of the work of women writers is long overdue. I congratulate the AutHer awards on their path breaking initiative in recognising the potential and power of writings that women authors bring to the table. The nominated authors achieved remarkable standards of creativity in their writing. On behalf of the heritage Oxford Bookstore, I wish them all the very best in their future literary endeavours. More power to Her Pen!”

The other jury members included: former diplomat-author Navtej Sarna and professor-author Jonathan Gil Harris for Fiction; award-winning filmmaker Ramesh Sharma and former Editor and communications specialist Prabha Chandran for Non-fiction; actress Lillete Dubey and Sunit Tandon- Director of the India Habitat Centre and President of the Delhi Music Society- for Debut; Swati Roy- owner of Eureka and Founder-Director of Bookaroo, and Dalbir K Madan- literacy & library consultant, and an educational entrepreneur.

The AutHer Awards 2023– Best Manuscript was judged by Hemali Sodhi, Founder of A Suitable Agency.

Vinita Dawra Nangia, Literary Director, AutHer Awards in her inaugural speech said, “This is no matter of chance, but a matter of a systematic bias that permeates the literary world. We need to create more opportunities for women authors to showcase their work and receive recognition. We need to challenge the stereotypes and and biases that limit women’s access to the literary world. The question never was, nor is whether men are better writers than women or vice versa. The point is that women must be read as writers, not women writers and their writing be appreciated without being presumed to be inferior or marginal only because of their gender!”


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ChatGPT’s AI to power Chegg study buddy as educators wrestle with tech



ChatGPT's AI to power Chegg study buddy as educators wrestle with tech

FILE – The OpenAI logo is seen on a mobile phone in front of a computer screen displaying output from ChatGPT, on March 21, 2023, in Boston.

The artificial intelligence behind ChatGPT, the homework-drafting chatbot that some schools have banned, is coming to more students via the company Chegg Inc.

The US educational software maker has combined its corpus of quiz answers with the chatbot’s AI model known as GPT-4 to create CheggMate, a study aide tailored to students, CEO Dan Rosensweig told Reuters last week.

“It’s a tutor in your pocket,” he said ahead of its announcement of CheggMate on Monday.

The software will adapt to students by processing data on what classes they are taking and exam questions they have missed, personalizing practice tests and guiding study in a way generalist programs like ChatGPT cannot, Rosensweig said. It will be available next month for free initially, Chegg said.

The release is poised to widen what pupils do with AI just as educators are grappling with its consequences. Last year’s launch of ChatGPT led students to turn in assignments written coherently by the chatbot, letting some sidestep coursework and forcing faculty to vet their integrity.

The Los Angeles Unified School District has blocked access to ChatGPT on its devices and networks pending more analysis, it told Reuters, while institutions such as France’s Sciences Po banned it out of concern it plagiarized sources. Still other teachers have encouraged ChatGPT’s usage if disclosed, for purposes such as critique.

Rosensweig said Chegg focuses on math and the sciences, not the essay drafting that has challenged schools. It also lets teachers restrict review of answers to questions on current exams.

Accuracy remains a problem for AI models, which predict what to say next without a grasp of facts. Rosensweig said Chegg has structured and checked its answers to ensure accuracy.

Asked if AI will prompt Chegg to shrink its pool of 150,000 experts contributing to its content, he said the company already balances humans with technology. CheggMate likely will decrease its cost of content and boost profitability over time, he said.

Analysts in recent months have questioned whether Chegg can grow its base of 8 million subscribers as students embrace the largely free ChatGPT software, created by the startup OpenAI. Chegg’s stock has fallen 28% this year as of Friday, making its market capitalization about $2.3 billion.

OpenAI’s CEO Sam Altman said in a Monday press release that the startup eagerly partnered with Chegg to “improve the way people around the world learn.”

Rosensweig said Chegg’s proprietary data showed its relevance. “That’s why they’re working with us,” he said.

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Electrical conductivity is a measure of a material’s ability to conduct an electric current


Electrical conductivity is a measure of a material’s ability to conduct an electric current. It is a physical property that quantifies how easily electric charges can flow through a substance. Materials with high electrical conductivity allow electric charges to move freely, while materials with low electrical conductivity impede the flow of electric charges.

The electrical conductivity of a material depends on various factors, including its atomic or molecular structure, temperature, and impurities. In general, metals are excellent conductors of electricity due to their metallic bonding, which allows free electrons to move easily through the material. Some examples of highly conductive metals include copper, silver, and aluminum.

On the other hand, non-metallic materials such as rubber, plastic, and wood have much lower electrical conductivity. These materials have tightly bound electrons and do not readily allow the flow of electric charges.

The unit of measurement for electrical conductivity is Siemens per meter (S/m) in the International System of Units (SI). In practice, other units like Siemens per centimeter (S/cm) or microsiemens per centimeter (μS/cm) are also used, especially for solutions or electrolytes.

It’s worth noting that electrical conductivity can vary widely among different materials. For example, copper has a high electrical conductivity of about 5.96 x 10^7 S/m, while rubber has a low electrical conductivity of around 1 x 10^-14 S/m.

In summary, electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material conducts electricity, with metals generally exhibiting high conductivity and non-metals having lower conductivity.

There are generally three types of electrical conductivity: conductors, insulators, and semiconductors. These types categorize materials based on their ability to conduct electric current.

Conductors: Conductors are materials that have high electrical conductivity. They allow electric charges to flow through them easily. In conductors, the outermost electrons of atoms are loosely bound, allowing them to move freely throughout the material. Metals, such as copper, silver, and aluminum, are excellent conductors of electricity due to their delocalized electrons.

Insulators: Insulators are materials that have very low electrical conductivity. They are designed to impede the flow of electric charges. Insulators have tightly bound electrons, which do not move easily through the material. As a result, they effectively block the flow of electric current. Examples of insulators include rubber, glass, plastic, and wood.

Semiconductors: Semiconductors are materials that have electrical conductivity between that of conductors and insulators. They have moderate electrical conductivity, which can be modified by introducing impurities or by varying temperature. In semiconductors, the electrons are neither tightly bound nor freely movable like in conductors or insulators. Silicon and germanium are commonly used semiconductors in electronic devices.

Semiconductors play a crucial role in the field of electronics, as they can be manipulated to exhibit specific electrical behavior. By adding impurities through a process called doping, the conductivity of semiconductors can be precisely controlled. This enables the creation of diodes, transistors, and other semiconductor devices used in modern electronics.

These three types of electrical conductivity provide a framework for understanding the behavior of different materials concerning their ability to conduct electric current.



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